††The multivitamin is optional foundational support

CBS (Cystathionine Beta-Synthase) C699T

Gene function:
Encodes the CBS enzyme, which converts homocysteine to cystathionine, a precursor of the amino acid cysteine.

Effect of the SNP:
This variation up-regulates the ability of CBS to remove homocysteine from the methylation pathway. While lower homocysteine may seem desirable, this SNP may divert homocysteine from the methylation pathway. This reduces methylation intermediates required for the transsulfuration pathway that produces taurine, glutathione and other sulfur containing derivatives. CBS requires vitamin B6, as pyridoxal 5’-phosphate, as a coenzyme.

Specialized nutritional support:
Supplementation with vitamin B6 ensures that the pathway has an adequate supply of its most essential cofactor.

The multivitamin is optional foundational support

COMT (Catechol O-Methyltransferase) Val/Met 158

Gene function:
Encodes the COMT enzyme, which metabolizes and detoxifies dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and estrogens.

Effect of the SNP:
This SNP reduces the activity of COMT by up to 4-fold. As a result, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and estrogens may reach high levels in the body. Alertness, wakefulness, cognitive performance, and occasional sleeplessness and restlessness are common clinical observations reflecting persistent stimulant effects of these neurotransmitters.

Specialized nutritional support:
Magnesium may support relaxation through COMT-independent mechanisms. Hydroxycobalamin is preferable to methylcobalamin in these patients. DIM (diindolylmethane) supports estrogen detoxification through alternate pathways. Avoid COMT inhibitors, such as caffeine, HPA activation, high protein intake, green tea and quercetin supplementation.

The multivitamin is optional foundational support

FUT2 (α-1,2-Fucosyltransferase) G772A

Gene function:
Limits vitamin B12 absorption; regulates gut microbiota and the adhesion of microbes to the intestinal mucosa.

Effect of the SNP:
This SNP is associated with lower intestinal microbial diversity and bifidobacteria levels. This SNP also has a protective effect on B12 status, as studies show higher B12 levels in individuals carrying the SNP.

Specialized nutritional support:
For those carrying this SNP, probiotics may support gut microbial balance. For those lacking this SNP, vitamin B12 supplements should be considered.

The multivitamin is optional foundational support

MTHFR (Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase) A1298C

Gene function:
Encodes the MTHFR enzyme, which converts folic acid and 5,10-methylene THF to 5-MTHF, the active form of folate.

Effect of the SNP:
With this SNP, MTHFR functions at approximately 30-45% of its normal rate. In contrast to the C677T SNP, A1298C does not typically affect homocysteine levels, but is linked to reduced production of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an integral cofactor in nitric oxide and neurotransmitter biosynthesis.

Specialized nutritional support:
Metafolin® bypasses MTHFR SNPs by providing 5-MTHF, the active, universally metabolized form of folate.

The multivitamin is optional foundational support

MTHFR (Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase) C677T

Gene function:
Encodes the MTHFR enzyme, which converts folic acid and 5,10-methylene THF to 5-MTHF, the active form of folate.

Effect of the SNP:
With this SNP, MTHFR functions at only 30-35% of its normal rate in individuals who are homozygous (both gene copies have the SNP) and 70% of its normal rate in individuals who are heterozygous (only one copy has the SNP). As a result, folate conversion to 5-MTHF is reduced and homocysteine is not methylated as readily.

Specialized nutritional support:
Metafolin® bypasses MTHFR SNPs by providing 5-MTHF, the active, universally metabolized form of folate.

The multivitamin is optional foundational support

MTR (Methionine Synthase) A2756G

Gene function:
Encodes the MTR enzyme (also called methionine synthase), which methylates homocysteine to methionine.

Effect of the SNP:
The A2756G SNP increases the efficiency of the MTR enzyme. This increases the demand for B12. Without adequate B12 levels, patients with this SNP may exhibit higher homocysteine and reduced overall methylation potential.

Specialized nutritional support:
Vitamin B12 and 5-MTHF are essential for MTR to maintain proper function.

The multivitamin is optional foundational support

MTRR (MTR Reductase) A66G

Gene function:
Encodes the MTRR enzyme, which regenerates vitamin B12 once MTR has used it.

Effect of the SNP:
The normal role of MTRR is to re-activate vitamin B12 but the A66G SNP makes it less efficient. This can reduce overall methylation competence. This SNP is associated with reduced DNA methylation, particularly in individuals with low vitamin B12 status.

Specialized nutritional support:
Vitamin B12 helps to sustain the activity of this enzyme.

The multivitamin is optional foundational support

TCN2 (Transcobalamin) C776G

Gene function:
Encodes a protein called transcobalamin, which transports B12 from the plasma into cells.

Effect of the SNP:
The C776G SNP weakens the ability of transcobalamin to carry and deliver B12 to cells throughout the body.Vitamin B12 is essential for energy, cognition, mood, nerve health and overall methylation competence. Individuals with this SNP may have normal serum B12 levels, but low intracellular levels. Elevated methylmalonic acid and/or elevated homocysteine concentrations are also common.*

Specialized nutritional support:
Select a highly bioavailable vitamin B12 supplement at a higher dose (2,000-5,000 mcg).

The multivitamin is optional foundational support
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Sample Report

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