ADIPOQ (Adiponectin gene) rs17366568

Gene function:
Adiponectin is a metabolic hormone released by adipose tissue. Adiponectin maintains insulin receptor function, glucose homeostasis and many aspects of cardiovascular function. Higher levels of adiponectin in the bloodstream have a strong, positive association with cardiometabolic health.

Effect of the SNP:
The A allele is associated with lower adiponectin levels. AA (+/+) and AG (+/-) genotypes tend to have lower adiponectin levels than GG (-/-) genotypes. This relationship has been demonstrated in Caucasians of European ancestry. The relevance of this association to other ethnicities is not supported by strong evidence.

Specialized nutritional support*:
The most effective way to increase adiponectin levels is to lose weight, particularly around the midsection, through diet and exercise. Some studies indicate that the Mediterranean diet improves adiponectin status. Alpha lipoic acid, berberine and certain polyphenols, such as resveratrol, support glucose homeostasis, in part by promoting the activity of AMPK, which maintains adiponectin production.

Assessment and monitoring considerations:
  • Serum adiponectin is a useful method to determine a patien’s levels and to monitor the effect of diet and lifestyle interventions on metabolic health.
  • Metabolic Xtra should be considered if other testing determines that glucose homeostasis is a clinical objective.*

APOA2 (Apolipoprotein A-II) rs5082

Gene function:
Encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, which is the second most abundant protein in high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. However, one of the major clinical implications of this particular SNP is related to body weight.

Effect of the SNP:
The homozygous (+/+) genotype is associated with increased food intake and weight gain, particularly when saturated fat intake is high.

Specialized nutritional support*:
Reduce saturated fat intake. Consuming less than 22g/day eliminates the effect of this SNP on body weight, according to cross-sectional, follow-up and case-control analyses involving 3,462 individuals.

Provides weight management support as part of a healthy lifestyle with a reduced calorie diet and regular exercise.

FADS (Fatty Acid Desaturase 1) rs174547

Gene function:
FADS, also known as deta-5-desaturase, converts fatty acid precursors to active omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA).

Effect of the SNP:
The CC (+/+) and CT (+/-) genotypes have a diminished capacity to convert omega-3 fatty acid precursors (linolenic acid from flaxseed oil and other plant oils) to EPA and DHA.

Specialized nutritional support*:
EPA and DHA

Assessment and monitoring considerations:
Omega-3 index or similar blood testing is useful for monitoring. The Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis RBC (Genova Diagnostics®) is recommended.*

FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated gene) rs9939609

Gene function:
The FTO gene plays a critical role in the regulation of appetite, satiety and other factors determining body weight.

Effect of the SNP:
The AA (+/+) and AT (+/-) genotypes have an increased susceptibility to obesity, owing to increased desire to eat and diminished satiety after meals. Carriers may be more likely to lose weight through diet and lifestyle modifications than non-carriers, but are more susceptible to weight regain after discontinuation of a weight management program.

Specialized nutritional support*:
This patient group is likely to respond to higher dietary protein intake to reach their weight management goals. Fucoxanthin and green tea support weight loss when combined with reduced calorie intake. Individuals who require more comprehensive support should consider the PureLean®† Protocol, which is appropriate for any genotype.*

Assessment and monitoring considerations:
  • Body weight and body composition.
  • Assess vitamin D levels. Correcting a deficiency may reduce the effect of the SNP on body weight.*

Provides weight management support as part of a healthy lifestyle with a reduced calorie diet and regular exercise.
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Sample Report

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